Towers (& Things) & Such 2020

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  • #45626

    I was wondering about the CM-3201 filter. All the info I could find online said it passed below 700 MHz. Fortunately, the one I bought from Amazon a month ago says it blocks 600-2000 MHz. That’s a relief.


    Ziply Fiber will take over Frontier FIOS Tv in the NorthWest region on May 1, 2020.


    I received a letter notifying me that my telephone and Internet service will be acquired by Ziply Fiber.

    Originally, my fiber optic Internet service had a dynamic IP address. In practice, the address would change each time that the router was re-started. I noted that at some point several years ago, Frontier was nice enough to give me a static address. This proved to be a really nice feature, as I run a “hobby” server. I wonder whether Ziply will be generous enough to let me keep my static address.


    Alfredo, I recently had Frontier fiber installed and I am somewhat disappointed. In the evenings the speeds vary from 64 kbps to 0.9 GBPS. I have never experienced such issues with Comcast. They also told me that they do not provide static IPs to residential accounts. I might just go back to Comcast.


    KXRU-ED: Sounds like you have a problem on your end. I got Frontier FiOS here in Hillsboro and get 200 Mbps up and 200 Mbps down all day and night.


    I ran a speed test some time ago, and the results were quite consistently 15 Mbps down/5 Mbps up. I am only subscribed for the lowest grade of service that they offer, so I consider that speed quite acceptable. It does what I need it to do.


    Vaya con fios! 🙂


    @ DarkStar: Do you use Frontier’s router or do you have your own? I am suspecting their $200 router is trash.


    KXRU-ED: I used their router for a while when I was on their 50/50 plan. When I upgraded to the 75/75 plan I switched to a Netgear router, but when I moved to 200/200 I moved to a Mikrotik (commercial router). I wouldn’t recommend Mikrotik for most people, Ubiquiti makes good stuff too and it is a bit easier to configure.

    Moving to 200/200, I had inconsistent speeds (but still over 90 Mbps). I found that when the technician replaced the board in my ONT (the fiber to ethernet converter) for the faster speed, he inadvertently pierced the old ethernet cable going to the router. Once I replaced that ethernet cable, I was rocking 200/200 all day long.

    Personally, I would suspect the ethernet cables first (especially the first one from the ONT to the router).


    I can’t even get fibre since Centuryshit have stated they have no plans to pull cables into my neighborhood. Unless I were to develop a masochistic side that pushes me to live with the headaches and bleeding ulcers that come with dealling with Commiecast, I’m stuck paying for 15M/5M VDSL2 and getting 9.2M/896K on a good day. Closest thing I can hope for is fiber to the concentrator with a decrepit last-quarter-mile copper pair to the house.

    It appears my transceiver can be set for static IP but I don’t know if the Orchards DSLAM supports it. I’ve always used dynamic IP for obvious privacy reasons. I’ve also used it to get around IP bans, but that’s not something I’d ever admit online in a public BBS.

    Andy Brown

    Okay, here is the complete official Jargon File for 2020 updated with new
    entries by Andy_Brown, semoochie and others.

    The jargon file (version 2.2.2020)

    (Diff: grep post #40635–
    2014 edition: #48
    2015 edition: #5216
    2016 edition: #16587
    2018 edition: #33885
    Unofficial fork of 2018 edition for 2019: #40627
    2019 edition: #40635)

    NOTE: Antirevisionistic policies prevent entries from being removed from this
    file (a.k.a. “Raymond’s Syndrome”) except in the case of an extremely glaring
    error. Old or technically obsolete entries are retained for historic


    GLOSSARY OF TERMS in U.S. unless otherwise noted:

    0.5 and 2.0 mV/m contours = In AM broadcasting, contours based on the standard
    ground wave field strength pattern, frequency and ground conductivity in the
    area. They represent a series of contours showing the coverage of a mediumwave
    broadcast signal, reflecting a pattern that shows how topography effects
    coverage and in the case of DAs how the pattern of coverage looks with regards
    to city of license, the region being covered and in the case of MW directional
    arrays the protection being implemented for other transmissions on co- or
    adjacent channels.

    60 dBu = 1 mv/M In FM broadcasting, the distance from the antenna where the
    propagated signal has attenuated to this value is considered in FM broadcasting
    as the limits of your Primary coverage or Protected contour. dBu references dB
    above 1 microvolt per meter (uV), that is to say 60dBu is 1,000 times the
    voltage at 0dBu ( 1 microvolt). In Zone I and I-A, Class B1’s primary protected
    contour is 57 dBu and for Class B’s it is 54 dBu. For all other stations in FM
    broadcasting, 60 dBu is the primary protected contour.

    A or Grade A (dBu) = television broadcast field strength contour of 68, 71, and
    74 (dBu) for channels 2-6, 7-13 and 14-69 respectively.

    AC = (1) Alternating current, the form in which electric mains power is
    delivered to customer premises. In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow
    of electric charge periodically reverses direction. Alternating current is the
    type of electrical signal used to drive loudspeakers (2) In radio programming, a
    format known as Adult Contemporary

    AC-3 = Acoustic Codec 3; formerly-proprietary, lossy audio codec originating at
    Dolby Labs in the early 1990s and originally intended for film soundtracks. The
    base of Dolby Digital audio technologies. (The original photographic “Dolby
    Digital” product uses a series of small data matrices between the left-hand run
    of perforations on 35mm movie film, next to the analog sound tracks. Supposedly
    a 70mm variation had been planned but it was never developed.) It was later
    mandated as the audio sytstem used in GI/Motorola/Arris’ Digicipher system (and
    later ATSC), is specified as an optional audio format in DVB (thus, most DVB-Sx
    receivers worth spending money on support it) and is the most widely used of
    several audio codecs in DVD-Video disks. There was a period of time in the
    early-mid 2000s when it seriously looked like AC3 was going to kick MP3’s ass as
    a general-purpose codec for consumer audio files, due to its favorably high
    performance (especially at lower bitrates) relative to file size compared to
    MP3, and its multichannel support, but Dolby’s anal-retentive licensing policies
    pretty much killed that off and it remained a niche format amongst a small (but
    dedicated) user base, mainly through the open-source liba52 project (look it up;
    it’s basically the equivalent of what LAME is to Fraunhofer MP3). As of 2017 all
    relevant patents concerning AC3 (along with MP2 and MP3) are expired and is now
    considered free to use and develop, so maybe this will finally come to fruition
    to some extent. AC-3 was extended as the “Dolby Digital Plus” format which
    supports up to 16 channels at maximum 6.144 Mb/s bitrate, which is not
    compatible with conventional AC-3 decoders (but DD+ decoders are compatible with
    conventional AC-3 files).

    AC-4 = Acoustic Codec 4; proprietary lossy audio coded originating at Dolby
    Labs. The successor to AC-3. AC-4 is proposed as one of the codecs in the
    3.0ATSC project and is specified in recent revisions of DVB standards.

    AGC = Automatic Gain Control, a technique in electronic circuits whereby the
    output is used to adjust the gain of an amplifier.

    AM = (1) amplitude modulation, the oldest form of modulation whereby the
    amplitude of the transmitted signal is varied in relation to the amplitude of
    the information being sent (2) the standard broadcast band (530 to 1700 kHz in
    the U.S.) (3) Ancient Modulation; broadcast band carrying programming targeted
    mainly at right-wing extremists, bible wavers and other people over 80

    AMSL = the height of a tower or antenna above mean sea level

    amp = (1) amplifier (2) the fundamental measure of electrical current

    ATSC = (1) Advanced Television Systems Committtee, an industry group established
    in the 1940s (defunct 1950s) to establish standards for NTSC electronic color
    television. (The failed CBS mechanical color system existed around the same time
    but was not administered by the ATSC.) The name was revived in the mid-1990s for
    the cabal behind digital television but has little resemblance to its
    predecessor. (2) Suite of proprietary standards developed by the Advanced
    Television Systems Committee for digital television transmission over
    terrestrial, cable and (sometimes) satellite networks, used across North America
    (mainly US/US territories and Canada [though reluctantly]) and small portions of
    Asia. (3) Acronym for “Always the Signal’s Crappy” because of its inability to
    compensate for terrain, distance, weather, physical obstructions, cosmic
    background radiation and the current astrological cycle, things NTSC and DVB
    have little trouble dealing with. Frequently ATSC signals arrive at the receiver
    corrupt and show up a blocky, unintelligible mess. It often takes the ritual
    waving of a dead chicken above the TV/receiver just to get an ATSC signal to

    ATSC-MH = [ATSC-Mobile/handheld] Variation of the ATSC-T standards used for
    transmissions to portable, rather than fixed, devices. (Wave dead chicken as
    necessary.) A kludge meant to sort of accomplish what NTSC-M didn’t have much
    trouble doing on its own.

    ATSC-QAM = ATSC transmissions modulated using various sizes of quadrature
    amplitude modulation constellations (64, 128 and 256-level are common) instead
    of 8-level vestigial sideband modulation. This is done primarily to improve
    bandwidth usage, thus enabling more program streams to occupy the same 6 MHz
    channel width than over the air. ATSC-QAM is mostly used on cable TV systems
    where it is frequently associated with in-the-clear channels and sometimes on
    closed- circuit (non-broadcast) over-the-air television systems. What most cable
    TV users mean when they generically say “QAM”.

    ATSC-T = [ATSC-Terrestrial] Terrestrial ATSC-standard 8VSB digital television
    broadcast transmissions in North America, Mexico and parts of Asia conducted in
    6 MHz channels conforming to the standard NTSC-M bandplan. What most people in
    North America mean when they say “DTV” or “OTA”.

    B or Grade B (dBu) = television broadcast field strength contour of 47, 56, and
    64 (dBu) for channels 2-6, 7-13 and 14-69 respectively.

    BUD = a Big Ugly Dish; West Virginia’s state flower.

    C = (1) the speed of light in a vacuum (2) Capacitance (the ability to store
    charge) (3) microwave radio frequency band between 4 and 8 GHz; commonly used on
    communication satellites for delivery of television programming by networks to
    TV stations and cable headends (hope you still have your old BUD!); also
    occasionally used by wireless computer networking equipment and better-quality
    cordless home telephones (4) Series of weak, verbose, and flabby programming
    languages used by card wankers to do boring mindless things under UNIX on
    dinosaur mainframes. Introduced by Dennis Ritchie in the 1970s as a reminder to
    be thankful for things like assembly languages. C deliberately takes many (if
    not most) of the more irritating aspects of COBOL and (dare I say it?) INTERCAL
    and compresses them into one easy-to-use, hard-to-forget suite. Due to its
    inclusion in the original UNIX kernel as, in Ritchie’s words, “a sick joke”, C
    and its variants are now used in just about everything with and without a
    central processing unit today. (Will the insanity ever end?) Hackers believe
    that C programmers are suits or code millers, and no self-respecting hacker
    would ever admit to having learned the language. Its very name is seldom uttered
    without ritual expressions of disgust or horror. Only Brainfuck is slightly less

    CAM = Conditional Access Module; part of a satelite (or cable) receiver’s
    decryption system. In the past (think analogue C-band Videocipher era) this was
    a big cage about the size of a large trade paperback that slid into a bay in the
    back of the receiver. These days a CAM is a large PCMCIA cartridge that plugs
    into a small slot (which there may be 2 or 3 of, depending on the manufacturer’s
    decision) on the front panel, or it may even be integrated with the motherboard.
    A CAM is a two-part system consisting of the decryption hardware itself plus a
    credit-card sized smart card, inserted into the module, containing the access
    keys and other data needed to decode the signal. CAMs are needed to gain (well,
    “legal”…) access to certain satellite feeds such as cable channels and
    pay-per-view services.

    CAM-D = /kam-dee/ Compatible Amplitude Modulation Digital; proposed system
    developed by Leonard Kahn as a reaction to Ibiquity’s DAB system (NRSC-5). It
    effectively is an “hybrid” system that sends the high-frequency audio along a
    narrowband digital side-channel of a conventional analog AM signal. It was
    developed from Kahn’s earlier independent-sideband stereo transmission system.
    CAM-D was advertised as causing less interference to adjacent channels than
    NRSC-5 and its ability to be added directly to an existing transmitter site
    without having to upgrade (expensive) existing equipment. Only a half-dozen
    stations in the USA broadcast using CAM-D on an experimental basis in the
    mid-late 2000s and no receiver products were ever introduced to the market. It
    was quietly discontinued after Kahn’s death in 2012. (Compare “HD Radio”)

    cart = shorthand for “cartridge”. (1) A tape cartridge; usually any of various
    2- or 3-track, 1/4 or 1/2-inch endless loop tape systems used in broadcast
    automation and similar applications; commonly one of several variants of George
    Eash’s Fidelipac format. Earl Muntz’s consumer-oriented 4-track system of the
    1960s (which the more familiar Lear 8-track tape evolved from) is a standard
    size “A” Fidelipac broadcast cart with a different track configuration and lower
    tape speed (2) A phonograph cartridge; a small container holding the electrical
    audio transducer elements (usually either coils of fine wire and a small magnet
    or piezoelectric crystals) mechanically coupled to a diamond, sapphire or steel
    pickup needle which tracks the analog audio signal embossed into the record’s
    groove. The component mounted on the end of the tone arm. Electronically a
    magnetic/coil cartridge is just a specialized type of dynamic microphone.

    CATV = (1) (generically) cable television. (2) (specifically) informal name for
    a variant of the standard NTSC-M bandplan used on cable television systems in
    North America. So-named to differentiate it from the similar, but less common
    HRC (harmonically-related carrier) and IRC (incrementally-related carrier)
    frequency plans. Portions of the CATV plan can be received using regular
    non-cable ready equipment, if the headend carries programming on those channels
    (particularly 2-13 and 65-139 (UHF broadcast 14-83). The current standard plan
    ranges from 7 MHz to 1 GHz near-continuously.
    North_American_television_frequencies#Cable_television (3) community antenna
    television; early type of cable TV first deployed in Astoria, OR. CATV, in its
    most primitive form, literally involves a number of receivers over a wide area
    (such as a city or an apartment building) connected directly to a central
    antenna, with possibly an amplifier or distribution hub, receiving terrestrial
    broadcast signals.

    Class = (1) Deceptive marketing buzzword often thrown around by widescreen TV
    and monitor companies. Euphemism for “not the actual size of the panel you’re
    buying”. E.g. a unit marketed as “58-inch class” probably does measure 58 inches
    in total if you count the 55 1/2 diagonal inches of actual visible display panel
    plus the 2 1/2 inches of plastic bezel that surround it. (2) In radio and
    television broadcasting, how much power and coverage a licensee may implement is
    determined by Zone and Class. Zones (see below) are geographic. Zones determine
    what classes will be licensed within that zone.

    Classes for FM are:
    Classes for AM are:
    Classes for TV are:

    clear channel = a frequency on the AM band which provides the radio station with
    the highest protection from interference from other stations. A long story. It
    no longer means that only one transmitter operates on that channel

    Clear Channel = (note capitalisation) The company that ruined radio. See also “I
    Heart Radio”.

    Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 47: Telecommunications = the
    codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal
    Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is
    divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation.
    Within title 47 the most discussed parts are normally Part 73 Radio Broadcast
    Services, but also may refer to Part 0, Part 1, Part 2, Part 15, Part 17, Part
    74, Part 95, Part 97.

    contour = a series of points at which the signal of a radio or television
    broadcast is at a referenced field strength. On flat land a non directional
    (omnidirectional) antenna will exhibit near circular contours, ideally. Contours
    are either “protected” contours or “interference contours.” In FM, the actual
    numerical values of these contours depends on Zone and Class. Also, when you are
    within 320 km of either Canada or Mexico, different spacing distances and
    contour values must be observed. Stations in Zone II that are not within 320 km
    of the Canadian border have their 60 dBu protected contour and three interfering
    contours, 40 dBu for co-channel, 54 dBu for 1st adjacent and 100 dBu for 2nd
    adjacent protection.

    CP = (1) construction permit (2) circular polarization

    CPS = Cycles Per Second; see “Hertz”

    CQAM (also “C-QuAM”) = Compatible Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, a system
    developed by Motorola for stereophonic broadcasting on mediumwave (AM)

    Critical hours = the first two hours after local sunrise and the last two before
    local sunset. It only applies to clear channels to protect the primary or
    primaries on those channels. The amount of power etc. authorized is listed on
    the license.

    DA = (1) directional antenna,an antenna which radiates greater power in one or
    more directions or exhibits greater receive sensitivity in one or more
    directions (2) distribution amplifier, an amplifier that provides multiple
    outputs from one input

    DA-N = directional antenna at night

    DA-2 = directional antenna 24 hours, different patterns day and night

    DAB = digital audio broadcasting, the method for audio broadcasting digitally in
    many countries, principally in Europe.

    dB = decibel, a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio between two values of
    a physical quantity, often used to express the gain of an amplifier or the loss
    of signal strength as a signal propagates away from the antenna.

    DBS = Direct Broadcast Satellite (or Service); basically, pay-cable TV over
    satellite and may carry video+audio programming (television), audio-only
    programming (radio simulcasts; specialty programming) or both. What the scammy
    MMDS “wireless cable” thing of the late 80s/early 90s probably could have been
    had it been managed more responsibly. Currently in the US, DBS cable
    consists/consisted of the major companies Direct TV (AT$T) and DiSH Network
    (Echostar), leased-bandwidth subsets of the two majors (e.g. Muzak via Echostar)
    and a handful of niche companies (e.g. Globecast World, Sky Angel, DMX Music.).
    DBS services may go out scrambled, in the clear or a mix of the two. Former
    major pay DBS cable systems in the US included Alphastar, Primestar and USSB.

    DC = (1) direct current, the unidirectional flow of electricity (2) Digicipher,
    digital TV system originally developed in the early 1990s by General Instruments
    (3) publisher of Batman, Superman and Justice League comic books (4) popular
    brand of skateboard hightops (next to Vans, Etnies and Converse)

    Dead air = Unmodulated carrier; condition occurring when a transmitter is on the
    air but there is an absence of modulation (no information being broadcast).

    Digicipher = Two proprietary early digital TV/audio broadcasting systems
    developed and originally marketed by General Instruments (which was bought out
    by Motorola and now owned by Arris Group) and which about 90% was worked into
    the ATSC standards. Digicipher II is the system encountered today and used
    mostly over satellites though a variant also exists for cable systems. Contrary
    to popular belief Digicipher is *not* an encryption system (though it does
    include optional encryption built-in) but a full MPEG2- or 4-based digital TV
    system, thus DC services can go out scrambled or in the clear. DCII predated DVB
    by a few years and coexists with it on North American satellites though the two
    are completely incompatible. DCII’s encryption system had been considered
    uncompromised, until a controversial seminar given at the Chaos Computer
    Conference in 2016 shot that all to hell
    The concept of “virtual channels” that all terrestrial TV users know and love
    today originated in Digicipher.

    DOCSIS = /DOK-siss/; /DOK-sees/ Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification,
    international standards that specify how packet (TCP-IP) data are to be sent
    over coaxial, hybrid fiber-coaxial and straight fiber cable TV networks. Systems
    based on DOCSIS are frequently used by cable TV headends to provide two-way
    Internet connectivity, pay-TV addressing and other telecommunications services
    like voice telephony.

    DRM = (1) Digital Radio Mondiale (fr./it. Worldwide Digital Radio), European
    MPEG4-based digital audio broadcasting system used on shortwave and (sometimes)
    the mediumwave and FM bands that’s sweeping the globe. DRM is an open system
    like DAB, but not related to and incompatible with DAB. (2) digital restriction
    management, any of various proprietary and sometimes illegal methods of blocking
    access to payware (downloaded or on disk) by those who paid, sometimes dearly,
    to access it. DRM methods vary from simply requiring the user type an “unlock”
    code on installation, to filesystem tricks, to more unethical and illicit means
    such as rootkits, and any number of variations and repetitions thereof. DRM has
    been the source of considerable headaches, confusion and user-inflicted physical
    damage to computer hardware for millions of computer operators the world over
    for many years, although most (if not all) systems in use (to date, as of this
    reading) have been defeated. Somebody who knows what they’re doing can defeat
    most popular software-based DRM systems in maybe an hour.[citation needed]

    DSS = Early digital television multiplexing system today used exclusively by
    Directv. Acronym for “Digital Satellite System”. DSS and DVB-S are similar
    except for the way they handle EPG, PIDs and other information, thus making them
    completely incompatible. “Classic” MPEG2 DSS is rapidly becoming obsolete as
    Directv converts to the more spectrally-efficient (and HD-capable) MPEG4 system.

    DSSC = double sideband suppressed carrier, a form of modulation used in analog
    FM (and sometimes AM (e.g. WWV/H)) broadcasting

    DTV = (1) Direct TV, American pay DBS service. (2) digital television; generic
    blanket term for any of various packet video broadcasting standards. “DTV” is
    NOT the name of any digital television broadcasting standard!!!

    DVB = Suite of largely open standards for MPEG2 and MPEG4 digital television
    transmissions via wire (DVB-C), air (DVB-T) and satellite (DVB-S) used around
    the world. DVB can support video, audio and two-way data communications. Way too
    complicated to go into technical details of here. Had big money not yet again
    had its way with the FCC, we could be enjoying DVB-T as our digital TV system
    instead of proprietary, crappy ATSC. DVB-S is the system Americans are most
    directly familiar with (especially if they use DiSH Network) since as of 2018 it
    makes up the bulk of satellite signals over North America that aren’t Digicipher

    EMI = (1) electromagnetic interference. (2) defunct major record label and media
    conglomerate based in England. Capitol Records was EMI’s North American

    EOM = end-of-mark; in tape automation systems, a subaudible tone used to signal
    the automation controller to stop the current tape and cue the next reel or cart
    in the playout chain. The typical EOM (e.g. as widely used in easy-listening
    FMs) was 1 second of 25 Hz (sometimes, though rarely, 35 Hz) tone at -0 VU/-18
    dBFS in the audio track (or the left channel, in the case of stereo recordings),
    at the end of the selection, followed by 1 second of silence to allow the next
    deck time to get up to speed. This usually created a silence gap between
    selections; while suitable for easy listening and and light music formats, it
    would make for a sloppy presentation on faster-paced pop music formats.
    Drake-Chenault got around this by putting the tone one second *before* the end
    of the song to form a tight segue more suitable for a pop format. Tone
    automation was effectively made obsolete in industry by the early 1980s when
    more sophisticated computerised playout controllers became available.

    ERP = Effective Radiated Power, in FM radio and television broadcasting, the
    amount of power you are licensed to transmit, it is equal to transmitter power
    output (TPO) minus transmission line loss times the antenna gain.

    FM = (1) frequency modulation, the encoding of information in a carrier wave by
    varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. (Compare with amplitude
    modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the
    frequency remains constant.) (2) the FM broadcast band (87.5 to 108.1 MHz
    throughout most of the world, in either 100 or 200 kHz increments.)

    frankberry = (vulgar) (1) a. Any middle-aged, grouchy white man who can’t find
    humor in anything and instead rants and raves about everything he finds not to
    his liking. b. Any person who is not liked by anyone because of their negative
    attitude toward everyone. “I just had my thread closed and was banned for a week
    by that frankberry of a moderator.” “My post has been deleted but with no
    justification, someone is pulling a frankberry.” (2) The most miserable or
    undesirable place in a particular area. (3) The human anus.

    free to air = A broadcast transmitted without encryption/scrambling and
    (usually) not requiring a subscription be paid to use it; for example,
    public-access channels on cable TV or DVB satellites. Compare “in the clear”.

    frequency = the number of occurrences of an electromagnetic field, usually
    referring to audio or radio signals, per unit time. Also see period and

    Gm = transconductance, the ratio of the current change at the output port to the
    voltage change at the input port, usually in reference to a vacuum tube.

    HAAT = Height above average terrain, used in the prediction of coverage by
    television stations, FM radio stations and some wireless radio services, HAAT
    value is determined by taking 50 evenly spaced elevation points (above mean sea
    level [AMSL]) along at least 8 evenly spaced radials from the transmitter site
    (starting at 0 degrees [True North]). The 50 evenly spaced points are sampled in
    the segment between 3 to 16 km (formerly 2 to 10 miles) along each radial. The
    elevation points along each radial are averaged, then the radial averages are
    averaged to provide the final HAAT value. Terrain variations within 3 km (2
    miles) of the transmitter site usually do not have a great impact on station

    HAGL = height above ground level

    HD Radio = Suite of proprietary standards for digital audio broadcasting used
    primarily in North America including Canada and in small portions of Asia and
    Europe. The HD Radio system was developed by Ibiquity Digital, a cartel of
    Lucent Technologies (AT$T) and a couple others, but as of 2015 is owned and
    administered by Digital Theatre Systems (DTS) (movie sound-on-CD; those guys).
    The currently accepted method is an hybrid mode transmitting redundant data
    streams in sidebands of an analogue FM (rarely AM) station’s composite audio
    signal though a full-digital mode does exist. Codec used is HE-AAC. HD Radio
    marketing boasts “near CD-quality” audio (whatever the hell that means) but due
    to the low bitrate and sample rates tends to fall short of that goal. It can
    yield very good results under the right conditions. Its real strength is its
    multicasting capability, providing a service similar to SCA but with relatively
    higher fidelity. The term “HD” is simply a brand name and not an acronym for
    anything although it is often (unofficially) defined as “Hybrid Digital”. (See

    HDTV = high-definition television; generic term for various specific optional
    high-resolution (today, often widescreen) image formats given in most current
    digital TV broadcasting systems (ATSC, DVB, ISDB…) and several obsolete analog
    systems (CCIR systems A [for its time], E & F; MUSE/Hi-Vision; HDMAC). Mostly
    due to expense and high bandwidth requirements, high-definition services
    presently comprise a small minority of terrestrial digital TV broadcasts
    operating in the US. Do not confuse “HDTV” with the acronym of any digital
    television broadcast standard (e.g. ATSC) or digital TV in general as they are
    not synonymous. It is not possible for anyone, including the most seasoned of
    professionals, to use the term in such a manner without making oneself look like
    a complete and total idiot!!!

    Hz = Hertz, the standard for measuring sinusoidal electricity. Also known as CPS
    or cycles per second

    I = electrical current, the flow of charge (measured in amperes or amps) (2)
    singular first-person pronoun used by most people to refer to themselves

    IBAC = in-band adjacent channel; what people really mean when they say “IBOC”.

    IBOC = in band on channel, the current method for broadcasting audio digitally
    on the AM and FM bands in North America

    IF = intermediate frequency,

    IFB = interruptible foldback (or feedback); one-way feed of a TV station’s audio
    used by the TV station’s producer, director or engineer to communicate
    instructions (such as cues and camera directions) to remote news gathering
    personnel in the field. Local IFBs are usually, though not exclusively, found in
    the 450 and 455 MHz bands, frequently during news broadcasts, and can be
    monitored on most basic narrowband FM (5-12 kHz) police scanners.

    I Heart Radio = Lipstick on a proverbial pig. A polished turd. “I Fart Radio”.

    IMD = intermodulation distortion

    In the clear = generally, transmitted without any encryption or scrambling; can
    be received on ordinary unmodified equipment. The main difference between
    “free-to-air” and “in-the-clear” is whether or not a subscription or permission
    is required to use the signal in certain applications. For example, Muzak and
    DMX broadcast music via satellite in-the-clear that can be (and often is)
    listened to by people in their private homes with off-the-shelf DVB equipment.
    It isn’t free-to-air because it still requires a subscription be paid to use it
    in businesses (such as stores and restaurants). Thus free-to-air transmissions
    are often (usually) in the clear, but transmissions in the clear may not
    necessarily be free to air.

    ISDB = Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Japanese standards for data
    broadcasting; used mostly for digital audio and video broadcasting in Japan and
    South America. ISDB’s high-definition video mode replaced the analogue MUSE
    standard for high-resolution video transmissions in Japan.

    K = (1) Kilo; SI prefix for thousand (2) Series of three microwave radio
    frequency bands between 12 and 40 GHz; the Ku-band (12-18 GHz) in particular is
    commonly used for foreign satellite television broadcasting, backhauls, business
    music services, commercial direct-broadcast satellite TV services (including pay
    packages like Echostar and Direct TV, and in-the-clear ethnic and religious
    TV/audio broadcasting.) The K-bands don’t require as large an antenna as C-band
    to reliably receive, making them practical for fixed-dish, direct-to-home
    television broadcasting and computer networking uses.

    Kirchoff’s Law = Two equalities that deal with the current and potential
    difference in the lumped element model of physical electrical circuits. First
    described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. This generalized the
    work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of James Clerk Maxwell. As taught, the
    first law states that the sum of currents at a node sum to zero (current in must
    equal current out). The second law states that the sum of all voltage drops
    around a closed loop with the circuit must sum to zero. In combination with
    Ohm’s Law, these three laws of physics enable almost all circuit parameters to
    be calculated as either a hard number or an expression in terms of the currents,
    voltages and stated variables given.

    L inductance = the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in
    electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the

    Longley-Rice = An alternate method to the FCC method of predicting coverage that
    addresses the difficulty of determining exactly where a contour line falls when
    in fact the signal from a given transmitter may rise and fall above and below a
    given signal level numerous times along the path.

    Loumaag = See frankberry.

    LPFM = Low Power FM, a class of service in FM broadcasting

    LPTV = Low Power TV, a class of service in TV broadcasting

    MAC = (Multiplex Analog Components) Series of various hybrid analog/digital
    color television systems used mostly for broadcasting in Europe and Asia. MAC
    systems transmit video as an analog baseband with sequential color information
    (similarly to SECAM) with digital audio tracks. Audio format is a minor (and
    compatible) variation of the British NICAM standard. A 525/60 version of D2-MAC
    was used in the initial versions of the Primestar DBS system in North America
    (later switched to DSS). A variation called “S-MAC” was used in NTSC areas to
    move video around inside TV studios due to its resistance to generational
    quality degradation. Outside North America it was used as a broadcasting format
    over cable and satellite links and a high-resolution format (HD-MAC) also
    exists. Because of various major technical issues MAC never really caught on as
    a terrestrial broadcasting standard (though several European and Asian countries
    did propose it) but it was, and still may be in a few areas, used on analog
    cable TV systems. Most if not all MAC broadcasts over satellites have been
    replaced by DVB.

    macOS [sic] = A 64-bit graphic shell for a 32-bit patch to a 16-bit kernel
    written for an 8-bit processor on a 4-bit bus, sold by a two-bit company that
    can’t tolerate one bit of competition. Something that reminds you to be thankful
    for things like Linux. No, that weird capitalization is not my error.

    MP2 = MPEG 1 audio layer II, industry-standard lossy audio codec originating at
    Fraunhofer Gesselschaft/Thomson IIS used mostly in (but not limited to)
    professional applications. Probably the most widely-deployed codec in
    broadcasting today. Based on (and often confused with) the earlier, obsolete
    MUSICAM codec. MP2 was what the later MP3 system was based on and there are
    several differences (most notably MP2’s simple 32-subband timebase encoding
    method versus MP3’s bizarrely complex 576-component hybrid frequency/double
    time-transform method) though they are similar enough that most MP3 decoders can
    handle MP2 data. MP2 is the predominant audio codec in DVD-Video titles and DVB
    satellite broadcasts when AC3 isn’t being used, is the mandated codec used in
    EU147 DAB, audio distribution to radio and TV networks, and one of many audio
    file formats supported by most consumer audio players that are worth spending
    money on. Encoders like twolame can be used to generate local MP2 files or audio
    streams. The development of MP2 earned CCETT, IRT and Philips an Emmy award for
    engineering in 2000. A form of the related MPEG 2 audio layer II encoding is
    used as an extension of MP3, mainly when the source PCM file is of lower
    sampling rate than 32 kHz (since MP3 only supports 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz sampling
    rates natively). Standardized in ISO/IEC 11172-3 and 13818-3.

    NABTS = North American Broadcast Teletext Specification; fork of EIA-608
    captioning technology (but standardized as EIA-512) that defines the teletext
    mode presently used in the US and Canada. A subset of the World Standard
    Teletext (WST) specification originally adopted in the UK by the BBC and ITV
    then the rest of the 625/50 world, with modifications to make it 525/60
    compatible. Responsible for that black box that takes up the lower half of your
    TV screen but mostly doesn’t do anything. Some off-air video tapes recorded from
    ABC and PBS in the late 80s/early 90s will show (now historic) TV scheduling and
    other information in this format if you set the closed caption decoder to text
    service #1 or 2 while the tape is playing. NABTS was used until fairly recently
    (early 2010s) to enclose ancillary TV show data (URLs and crap) used by
    Microsnort’s “Web TV for Windows” package (text #3 I.I.R.C.). It still sees
    occasional use today as a way of sending internal messages to network affiliates
    and for leased low-speed data services, some of which are known to leak out onto
    local affiliates during network broadcasts. NABTS also specifies how NAPLPS
    packets are to be encoded for one-way broadcast over television stations. NABTS
    is directly related to closed-captioning for the hearing impaired, and
    transmitted/decoded in a similar way using basically the same hardware.

    NAPLPS = North American Presentation Level Protocol Standard, Telidon’s and
    AT&T’s (mostly) method of implementing sort of “BBC-like” teletext used on NTSC
    television systems. Based on the Canadian “Telidon” system. One of three
    competing teletext systems implemented in North America alongside NABTS and a
    slightly modified form of World Standard Teletext (WST) (used by the BBC and
    just about everybody else). NAPLPS could do some really cool shit (for its time)
    that the other systems couldn’t, like vector graphics and a primitive form of
    “interactivity”. Unlike NABTS teletext, and like WST, NAPLPS’ big black window
    that does nothing takes up almost the entire screen area. NAPLPS was never
    widely used for broadcast services and was considered dead in that application
    by the end of the 1980s because AT$T couldn’t get enough TV manufacturers to buy
    into its very expensive and complex technology, though it did see considerable
    use on dialup computer services (e.g. the original Prodigy network) into the mid

    NDA = non directional antenna

    NIR (pron. “near”) = Proposed Soviet color TV format developed in the 1950s but
    never deployed. Named for the Nautchno-Issledovatelskiy Institut Radio; a
    Russian telecommunications research institute. Basically an incompatible
    variation of SECAM. The motivation of this development was mostly political, to
    prevent satisfactory reception of outside color TV signals behind the Iron
    Curtain. PAL was not in wide use yet and it was thought that SECAM would become
    the dominant color system across Europe and Asia. (Similar to how the 62-75 MHz
    “OIRT” FM broadcasting band was used across the eastern bloc in lieu of 87.5-108
    MHz as used in the West.) By the early 1960s the NIR system was considered
    unnecessary and expensive to implement and conventional SECAM was deployed
    across the Soviet Union instead. (SECAM-III is still used today to transmit
    television to remote areas of Russia (e.g. Siberia) and the Ukraine that would
    be difficult or impractical to reach using DVB-T or -S.) As with SECAM and PAL,
    NIR would have been used with a conventional 625/50 baseband video signal. Two
    versions of NIR were proposed, with (“non-linear”) and without (“linear”)
    dynamic gamma correction. The linear version was tentatively named “SECAM-IV”.

    NTSC = analog television engineering standards and video transmission system.
    Acronym for “Never Twice the Same Color”.

    NFG = what happens to all vacuum tubes after a while

    NFM = narrowband FM; frequency-modulated radio signals with bandwidth usually
    less than 50 kHz (25 kHz deviation). NFM signals between 5 and 25 kHz are
    commonly used for two-way voice and FSK data communications. Compare WFM.

    Ohm’s law = The current through a conductor between two points is directly
    proportional to the voltage across the two points. Usually stated as V = iR
    (voltage equals current times resistance). One of two laws that form the basis
    of all electrical calculations within a circuit. See Kirchoff’s Law.

    OS/X = Deprecated. See macOS.

    P = Electrical Power, measured in watts, the product of current and voltage at
    the same point.

    PA = (1) power amplifier (2) public address

    PAL = (1) Phase Alternating Line, an analog color video subcarrier system
    developed in Germany in the early 1960s, that became common in many countries
    that use monochrome systems with a 50 Hz refresh rate (there is a 60 Hz 525-line
    variation of PAL, called PAL-M, used primarily in Brazil). Both PAL and NTSC use
    quadrature amplitude modulated subcarriers carrying the chrominance information
    added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.
    The name “Phase Alternating Line” describes the way that the phase of part of
    the color information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which
    automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by
    cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. This is
    why European TV sets, unlike NTSC sets, don’t have hue (tint) adjustment
    controls – it simply isn’t needed. A phenomenon known as “Hanover bars” is
    sometimes observed in the event of major phasing errors, such as poor reception
    conditions, in the form of negative-color horizontal striping every other line.
    (2) Perfection At Last; common reaction to the system’s technical merits after
    having previously dealt with NTSC and SECAM. (3) Informally, any 576I 50Hz
    analog video recording or transmission regardless of color encoding, as how
    “NTSC” is used to informally describe any 480I 60Hz broadcast or recording.

    Phasor = In AM directional antennae systems (multiple towers) the transmitter
    output is connected to the phasor where there is a separate output for each
    tower. The purpose of the phasor is to adjust phase and magnitude of the radio
    frequency current being sent to each tower in the directional array. The
    differences in these parameters are what creates the directional pattern. (take
    a cookie baking sheet pan, fill with water, drop a stack of 4 pennies in one
    place near the center of the tray and then 4 quarters in another place near the
    center. Observe the interference patterns. This is a very basic way to explain
    how directional patterns are created using multiple towers). This applies to AM
    broadcasting only. FM directional antenna are done differently.

    POL = polarization (also polarisation), in antenna theory the polarization is
    the orientation of the electric field, and is always 90º from the magnetic
    field. See

    Q = (1) in electrical and electronic circuits, bandwidth relative to its center
    frequency; the Q or quality factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes
    how under damped an oscillator is. A high Q indicates a lower rate of energy
    loss (2) the head of R&D in the British Secret Service in the James Bond series
    (3) Captains Picard/Sisko/Janeway’s immortal nemesis

    QAM = (1) Quadrature amplitude modulation, a form of single-sideband-like
    modulation used for analogue (i.e. AM stereo) and digital (e.g. cable)
    information (2) what most cable TV users call it when referring to in-the-clear
    transmissions (even though the entire system might be QAM)

    Quieting = A signal that is strong and clear, free of static, and easily
    receivable by others. Generally “full quieting” provides enough carrier presence
    to mute interfering signals and the IMD artifacts that they cause even in quiet
    or low modulation level passages.

    Reactance = the imaginary resistance part of impedance. It isn’t “imaginary” at
    all. It represents the resistance equation as a function of frequency for
    capacitance and inductance. In general, capacitance will have a negative
    reactance and inductance will have a positive reactance so that Z = R + jX is
    inductive and Z = R – jX is capacitive.

    RF = radio frequency energy, electromagnetic signals that have a frequency
    greater than 3,000 Hz (3 kHz). Up to about 20 kHz RF overlaps the audio
    frequency range. (NB. Audio is mechanical energy, not electromagnetic.)

    RF Spectrum Ranges include:

    Very Low Frequency VLF 3 – 30 kHz
    Low Frequency LF 30 – 300 kHz
    Medium Frequency MF 300kHz – 3 MHz
    High Frequency HF 3 – 30 MHz
    Very High Frequency VHF 30 – 300 MHz
    Ultra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz – 3 GHz
    Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz – 30 GHz
    Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz – 300 GHz

    RFI = radio frequency interference

    RFR = radio frequency radiation,

    Safe Harbor = time period between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., local time. During this
    time period, a station may air “indecent” and/or “profane” material. In
    contrast, there is no safe harbor for the broadcast of “obscene” material.
    Obscene material is entitled to no First Amendment protection, and may not be
    broadcast at any time. For a full explanation of indecency, profanity and
    obscenity (they are all different as pertaining to broadcasting) see (And
    yet, as blatantly obscene and offensive as it is, there never seems to be any
    shortage of right-wing Christian holy roller programming being barfed out over
    the Amerikkkan airwaves today. Why is this? Ahem. -Ed’r.)

    SAP = Secondary Audio Programming; analog multiplexed FM audio channel similar
    of SCA but used with the NTSC television system. Specified in the BTSC
    multichannel television sound standards. At a minimum, SAP is nearly identical
    to SCA except for the frequency offset (+78.67 kHz vs. +67/+92 kHz as is the
    case with SCA; fifth harmonic of the 15.734 kHz stereo pilot tone frequency) and
    wider bandwidth, and are of comparatively higher fidelity. SAP subcarriers are
    frequently used for foreign-language dubs of program audio but are also used to
    send alternative audio programming (NOAA/EC weather, college radio simulcasts,
    reading for the blind, etc). A “second” narrowband SAP channel, informally known
    as the “pro” or “professional” channel at +102.271 kHz (6 1/2th harmonic), is
    sometimes used to send interruptible foldback, telemetry and other information
    used internally by the TV station and most tuners (except modified FM/TV radio
    sets) can not tune the “pro” channel. Analog SAP’s function was replicated and
    largely replaced by AC3 multicasting in ATSC broadcasting, where the old
    terminology is still informally used. See also SCA.

    S/N = Signal to noise ratio of either the RF, visual or audio signal with
    reference to the associated noise floor.

    SCA = Subsidiary Communications Authorisation; method of transmitting narrowband
    (<= 8 kHz, usually) analogue FM audio programming alongside wideband FM radio
    transmissions in the upper portion of an FM broadcast band channel at +67 and
    +92 kHz offset the baseband (determined relative the +19 kHz stereo pilot tone).
    SCA transmissions are/were frequently (though not always) used for
    pay-subscription programming such as Muzak. They are still occasionally used for
    free programming such as ethnic broadcasts and radio reading services. SCAs go
    out at maximum 10% modulation relative the main wideband carrier and are prone
    to multipath distortion, crosstalk, fading and similar effects. SCA audio almost
    always goes out in the clear. This method is becoming increasingly obsolete as
    newer methods capable of delivering higher-fidelity audio and tighter access
    controls, such as ATSC or Ibiquity channels and Internet streaming, continue to
    replace them. The late author and publisher of the DX guide “FM Atlas”, Bruce F.
    Elving PhD., was a proponent of using SCA to transmit supplemental material to
    the station’s main broadcast. SCA was officially deregulated by the FCC in the
    80s, to Muzak Corporation’s chagrin, and became the method of choice for
    libraries and blindness advocacy groups to send out recorded readings of books
    and magazines. A similar technology, SAP, was used by NTSC television stations
    to send alternative audio programming (Spanish dubs, NOAA/EC weather, college
    radio simulcasts, etc).

    SECAM = Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour And Memory), analog
    color video subcarrier system developed in France. Usually used with 625/50
    baseband video systems. SECAM transmits each color line sequentially and stores
    each in delay lines until they can be writen to the screen raster. The other
    systems use the phase difference between two subcarrier components relative the
    baseband monochrome picture to obtain full color. Also “System Entirely Contrary
    to the American Method” since chronologically it follows NTSC, predates PAL and
    is mechanically a total departure of either. A 525/60 variant called “SECAM-M”
    was used in Cambodia and parts of Viet Nam starting in the late 1960s. SECAM-M
    had also been proposed in North America around the same time as a “professional”
    intermediate format, intended to losslessly move color video around studios and
    production facilities with NTSC workflows, but how widely its uptake was is

    skin effect = The tendency for alternating current (AC) to flow mostly near the
    outer surface of an electrical conductor, such as metal wire. The effect becomes
    more and more apparent as the frequency increases.

    SOL = the prevailing attitude of employees when they learn Clear Channel has
    automated their station (see above)

    SPARS code = Those three little “A”s and/or “D”s you sometimes see on audio CD
    documentation. Specified in 1984 by the Society of Professional Audio Recording
    Services to (some would argue, over-simplistically) describe the recording and
    mastering workflow used to produce the final recording. The format is studio
    take-mix and edit-master. Since CDs are a digital medium the final letter is
    always “D”, though “A” is also (albeit rarely) used for analogue end media
    (cassettes/reels/records) struck from an analog manufacturing master.
    The most common combiations are:
    AAD – Analogue studio take/analogue mix/digital manufacturing master
    ADD – Analogue/digital/digital
    DAD – Digital/analogue/digital
    DDD – Digital/digital/digital
    Oddly, some LP releases produced near the end of the format’s lifespan in the
    late 1980s and early 1990s, which had simultaneous CD releases, were also coded
    with a “D” suffix despite being an analogue format. Although confusing, this
    combination is entirely plausible since a digital manufacturing master tape or
    disk can, when decoded to analogue audio, be used to drive a cutting head.

    SSB = single side band, a form of amplitude modulation

    STA = Special Temporary Authority. When a broadcast station cannot operate in
    accordance with its license due to equipment failure, damage to licensed
    transmission systems, or other causes, the station may request an STA. Section
    73.1635 of the rules governs STA operation; other related rule parts are 73.1680
    (emergency antennas); 73.1560 (reduced power); 73.62 (AM directional antennas)
    73.1740 (reduced hours).

    Standing Wave Ratio = or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. In radio engineering and
    telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching
    of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide. In
    lay terms, the SWR indicates the amount of reflected power as measured at a
    specific point in the system. No reflected power is an SWR of 1.0 although in
    most non laboratory situations that is impossible to achieve. An SWR of 1.2 is
    considered very good. An SWR of 1.0x is considered excellent. The SWR is usually
    thought of in terms of the maximum and minimum AC voltages along the
    transmission line, thus called the voltage standing wave ratio or VSWR
    (sometimes pronounced “vizwar”). For example, the VSWR value 1.2:1 denotes an AC
    voltage due to standing waves along the transmission line reaching a peak value
    1.2 times that of the minimum AC voltage along that line. The SWR can as well be
    defined as the ratio of the maximum amplitude to minimum amplitude of the
    transmission line’s currents, electric field strength, or the magnetic field
    strength. Neglecting transmission line loss, these ratios are identical.

    STL = studio-transmitter link, a system to deliver the program audio chain to
    the transmitter site from the studio

    SWR = see Standing Wave Ratio.

    T = Period, the inverse of frequency or the time for the electric wave to go
    through one full cycle.

    TPO = transmitter power output

    THD = total harmonic distortion

    THX = how’d that get in here?

    translator = a low power class of service in FM broadcasting intended to repeat
    programming from an originating full power class station

    V = voltage, the electrical potential (difference) between two points

    Vestigial sideband = (or VSB) A form of amplitude modulation where one sideband
    is transmitted along with a carrier. An odd variation of single-sideband meant
    to be compatible with conventional AM sets; often used on shortwave. It has no
    real power savings advantage over conventional double-sideband AM but it is a
    significantly more efficient usage of bandwidth and can avoid interference to
    adjacent transmissions. The Canadian speaking clock CHU is an example of VSB
    modulation with audio on the upper sideband
    ( VSB is also used in some
    digital radio systems and for the video portion of analog television signals.

    VSB = see Vestigial sideband

    VSWR = Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. (see Standing Wave Ratio)

    wavelength = in a sinusoidal wave, the distance over which the wave’s shape

    WE = (1) Western Electric, defunct American producers of the most reliable
    telephones ever made. Former division of AT&T and the manufacturing component of
    the Bell System. (GTE’s unrelated equivalent was Automatic Electric (AE), which
    resulted from General Telephone purchasing Strowger Automatic Electric Switch
    Company in the 1890s.) Western Electric had several foreign subsidiaries,
    particularly Northern Electric (Canada) (now Northern Telecom/NORTEL Networks)
    and Nippon Electric Corporation (NEC) (remember the Turbo Graphics 16?). (2)
    first-person collective pronoun that individual ham radio operators refer to
    themselves as because personal individuality is not a recognised tenet of the
    ham radio religion’s forced-assimilationism doctrine (contrast “I”)

    Weather band = In North America, seven narrowband VHF FM channels between
    162.400 and 162.550 MHz (25 kHz spacing) used for automated NOAA/National
    Weather Service and Environment Canada radio broadcasts consisting primarily of
    weather reports, forecasts and various other public safety information.
    Virtually all police scanners, most VHF HAM radio transceivers, and many other
    devices such as car stereos and boomboxes can receive these broadcasts.
    Dedicated weather radio receivers also exist. Weather radio transmissions are
    simulcast over conventional AM stations and television SAP (see SCA) broadcasts
    in some areas. The band’s 162 MHz position was selected because of its proximity
    to the marine VHF communications band. The length of a typical NOAA broadcast
    cycle can run anywhere from about 10-15 minutes (e.g. a station in a
    predominantly urban area) to well over an hour (e.g. a network of stations
    simulcasting to cover a large coastal region). In the USA alternate languages
    (e.g. Spanish) are provided in a few areas, sometimes on separate frequencies;
    Canadian broadcasts typically alternate between English and French programming
    cycles on the same frequency. A related (but different) service in Canada,
    “continuous marine broadcast”, transmits recorded safety and navigational
    announcements to mariners on several frequencies between 161.55 and 162.0 MHz.

    WFM = wideband FM; frequency-modulated radio signals with bandwidth equal to or
    greater than 50 kHz (25 kHz deviation). WFM signals of 100 or 200 kHz bandwidth,
    depending on region, are found between 70 and 108 MHz where they are used for
    composite one-way audio/data transmissions. Some types of relatively narrowband
    FM signals between about 25 and 50 kHz bandwidth (such as those used sometimes
    by ham radio operators and formerly by AMPS cellular telephone service) are
    confusingly referred to as “wideband” because they are wider than others of
    similar nature.

    XTAL = Crystal

    XMTR = Transmitter

    XFORMER = Transformer

    Z = impedance = the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a
    current when a voltage is applied (DC resistance plus AC resistance)

    Zones = In FM and TV broadcasting, for the purpose of allotments and
    assignments, the United States is divided into three zones. A map of zones can
    be found on

    \lambda; = wavelength

    \omega; = Resistance in Ohms

    \pi; = pi, mathematical constant. The ratio of a circle’s circumference to its
    diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.14159265358979323846; often shortened
    to 3.14159 or fewer, depending how much precision is desired. Circumference can
    be easily calculated using the formula \pi;R\sq; (pi-R-squared), or 3.14 *
    radius * 2. Sometimes approximated as the fraction 22/7.

    Ø = (1) the null set, (2) undefined (3) diameter (4) the sum and total of your
    enemy’s knowledge . . . depending on which side of this board it appears.


    Deliberately plagiarized and ripped off from Andy Brown’s post from a few years
    ago with various additions made and liberties taken by me. (Live with it. Laugh
    a little.)

    The opinions and views expressed in this post may not necessarily represent
    those of nosignalallnoise or anybody else in particular. Or maybe they might.
    Who knows. Who’s keeping track? Who cares?


    Hey, you got it to work!

    Next thing to do: upload a second “no-wrap” version of the file without CR/LFs so it doesn’t look so messy when reposted to bulletin boards. This will happen this weekend if not sometime next week.


    Thank you Andy for listing me as a co-author of this piece although I must say that I have no recollection of doing so. That said, I would rather not be given credit for anything to do with frankberrying or is it “burying”? 🙂

    Andy Brown

    I copied nosignal’s post and tried on multiple occasions to post and it failed. This is really Dan’s repost of my failed attempt to post nosignal’s post which is an amalgam of several posts over several years.

    Frankenberry?? Not something I put in the glossary.

    Reformat and try to repost? No thanks


    Semoochie– You’re welcome.

    You did post some entries a couple versions back that I worked into the file.

    As for frankberry, well, that’s neither here nor there. Actually it’s there but hopefully not here (touch wood).

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