April 6, 2020 at 3:30 pm #45626billmcfParticipant
I was wondering about the CM-3201 filter. All the info I could find online said it passed below 700 MHz. Fortunately, the one I bought from Amazon a month ago says it blocks 600-2000 MHz. That’s a relief.April 19, 2020 at 6:19 pm #45918washnotoreParticipant
Ziply Fiber will take over Frontier FIOS Tv in the NorthWest region on May 1, 2020.April 20, 2020 at 9:41 am #45921Alfredo_TParticipant
I received a letter notifying me that my telephone and Internet service will be acquired by Ziply Fiber.
Originally, my fiber optic Internet service had a dynamic IP address. In practice, the address would change each time that the router was re-started. I noted that at some point several years ago, Frontier was nice enough to give me a static address. This proved to be a really nice feature, as I run a “hobby” server. I wonder whether Ziply will be generous enough to let me keep my static address.April 21, 2020 at 3:04 pm #45940KXRU-EDParticipant
Alfredo, I recently had Frontier fiber installed and I am somewhat disappointed. In the evenings the speeds vary from 64 kbps to 0.9 GBPS. I have never experienced such issues with Comcast. They also told me that they do not provide static IPs to residential accounts. I might just go back to Comcast.April 22, 2020 at 4:35 am #45949DarkStarParticipant
KXRU-ED: Sounds like you have a problem on your end. I got Frontier FiOS here in Hillsboro and get 200 Mbps up and 200 Mbps down all day and night.April 22, 2020 at 10:04 am #45950Alfredo_TParticipant
I ran a speed test some time ago, and the results were quite consistently 15 Mbps down/5 Mbps up. I am only subscribed for the lowest grade of service that they offer, so I consider that speed quite acceptable. It does what I need it to do.April 22, 2020 at 11:13 am #45951semoochieParticipant
Vaya con fios! 🙂April 22, 2020 at 8:45 pm #45953KXRU-EDParticipant
@ DarkStar: Do you use Frontier’s router or do you have your own? I am suspecting their $200 router is trash.April 23, 2020 at 7:34 am #45956DarkStarParticipant
KXRU-ED: I used their router for a while when I was on their 50/50 plan. When I upgraded to the 75/75 plan I switched to a Netgear router, but when I moved to 200/200 I moved to a Mikrotik (commercial router). I wouldn’t recommend Mikrotik for most people, Ubiquiti makes good stuff too and it is a bit easier to configure.
Moving to 200/200, I had inconsistent speeds (but still over 90 Mbps). I found that when the technician replaced the board in my ONT (the fiber to ethernet converter) for the faster speed, he inadvertently pierced the old ethernet cable going to the router. Once I replaced that ethernet cable, I was rocking 200/200 all day long.
Personally, I would suspect the ethernet cables first (especially the first one from the ONT to the router).April 23, 2020 at 10:16 am #45957
I can’t even get fibre since Centuryshit have stated they have no plans to pull cables into my neighborhood. Unless I were to develop a masochistic side that pushes me to live with the headaches and bleeding ulcers that come with dealling with Commiecast, I’m stuck paying for 15M/5M VDSL2 and getting 9.2M/896K on a good day. Closest thing I can hope for is fiber to the concentrator with a decrepit last-quarter-mile copper pair to the house.
It appears my transceiver can be set for static IP but I don’t know if the Orchards DSLAM supports it. I’ve always used dynamic IP for obvious privacy reasons. I’ve also used it to get around IP bans, but that’s not something I’d ever admit online in a public BBS.
April 24, 2020 at 8:30 am #45579Andy BrownParticipant
- This reply was modified 3 months, 2 weeks ago by nosignalallnoise.
Okay, here is the complete official Jargon File for 2020 updated with new
entries by Andy_Brown, semoochie and others.
The jargon file (version 2.2.2020)
(Diff: grep post #40635–
2014 edition: #48
2015 edition: #5216
2016 edition: #16587
2018 edition: #33885
Unofficial fork of 2018 edition for 2019: #40627
2019 edition: #40635)
NOTE: Antirevisionistic policies prevent entries from being removed from this
file (a.k.a. “Raymond’s Syndrome”) except in the case of an extremely glaring
error. Old or technically obsolete entries are retained for historic
GLOSSARY OF TERMS in U.S. unless otherwise noted:
0.5 and 2.0 mV/m contours = In AM broadcasting, contours based on the standard
ground wave field strength pattern, frequency and ground conductivity in the
area. They represent a series of contours showing the coverage of a mediumwave
broadcast signal, reflecting a pattern that shows how topography effects
coverage and in the case of DAs how the pattern of coverage looks with regards
to city of license, the region being covered and in the case of MW directional
arrays the protection being implemented for other transmissions on co- or
60 dBu = 1 mv/M In FM broadcasting, the distance from the antenna where the
propagated signal has attenuated to this value is considered in FM broadcasting
as the limits of your Primary coverage or Protected contour. dBu references dB
above 1 microvolt per meter (uV), that is to say 60dBu is 1,000 times the
voltage at 0dBu ( 1 microvolt). In Zone I and I-A, Class B1’s primary protected
contour is 57 dBu and for Class B’s it is 54 dBu. For all other stations in FM
broadcasting, 60 dBu is the primary protected contour.
A or Grade A (dBu) = television broadcast field strength contour of 68, 71, and
74 (dBu) for channels 2-6, 7-13 and 14-69 respectively.
AC = (1) Alternating current, the form in which electric mains power is
delivered to customer premises. In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow
of electric charge periodically reverses direction. Alternating current is the
type of electrical signal used to drive loudspeakers (2) In radio programming, a
format known as Adult Contemporary
AC-3 = Acoustic Codec 3; formerly-proprietary, lossy audio codec originating at
Dolby Labs in the early 1990s and originally intended for film soundtracks. The
base of Dolby Digital audio technologies. (The original photographic “Dolby
Digital” product uses a series of small data matrices between the left-hand run
of perforations on 35mm movie film, next to the analog sound tracks. Supposedly
a 70mm variation had been planned but it was never developed.) It was later
mandated as the audio sytstem used in GI/Motorola/Arris’ Digicipher system (and
later ATSC), is specified as an optional audio format in DVB (thus, most DVB-Sx
receivers worth spending money on support it) and is the most widely used of
several audio codecs in DVD-Video disks. There was a period of time in the
early-mid 2000s when it seriously looked like AC3 was going to kick MP3’s ass as
a general-purpose codec for consumer audio files, due to its favorably high
performance (especially at lower bitrates) relative to file size compared to
MP3, and its multichannel support, but Dolby’s anal-retentive licensing policies
pretty much killed that off and it remained a niche format amongst a small (but
dedicated) user base, mainly through the open-source liba52 project (look it up;
it’s basically the equivalent of what LAME is to Fraunhofer MP3). As of 2017 all
relevant patents concerning AC3 (along with MP2 and MP3) are expired and is now
considered free to use and develop, so maybe this will finally come to fruition
to some extent. AC-3 was extended as the “Dolby Digital Plus” format which
supports up to 16 channels at maximum 6.144 Mb/s bitrate, which is not
compatible with conventional AC-3 decoders (but DD+ decoders are compatible with
conventional AC-3 files).
AC-4 = Acoustic Codec 4; proprietary lossy audio coded originating at Dolby
Labs. The successor to AC-3. AC-4 is proposed as one of the codecs in the
3.0ATSC project and is specified in recent revisions of DVB standards.
AGC = Automatic Gain Control, a technique in electronic circuits whereby the
output is used to adjust the gain of an amplifier.
AM = (1) amplitude modulation, the oldest form of modulation whereby the
amplitude of the transmitted signal is varied in relation to the amplitude of
the information being sent (2) the standard broadcast band (530 to 1700 kHz in
the U.S.) (3) Ancient Modulation; broadcast band carrying programming targeted
mainly at right-wing extremists, bible wavers and other people over 80
AMSL = the height of a tower or antenna above mean sea level
amp = (1) amplifier (2) the fundamental measure of electrical current
ATSC = (1) Advanced Television Systems Committtee, an industry group established
in the 1940s (defunct 1950s) to establish standards for NTSC electronic color
television. (The failed CBS mechanical color system existed around the same time
but was not administered by the ATSC.) The name was revived in the mid-1990s for
the cabal behind digital television but has little resemblance to its
predecessor. (2) Suite of proprietary standards developed by the Advanced
Television Systems Committee for digital television transmission over
terrestrial, cable and (sometimes) satellite networks, used across North America
(mainly US/US territories and Canada [though reluctantly]) and small portions of
Asia. (3) Acronym for “Always the Signal’s Crappy” because of its inability to
compensate for terrain, distance, weather, physical obstructions, cosmic
background radiation and the current astrological cycle, things NTSC and DVB
have little trouble dealing with. Frequently ATSC signals arrive at the receiver
corrupt and show up a blocky, unintelligible mess. It often takes the ritual
waving of a dead chicken above the TV/receiver just to get an ATSC signal to
ATSC-MH = [ATSC-Mobile/handheld] Variation of the ATSC-T standards used for
transmissions to portable, rather than fixed, devices. (Wave dead chicken as
necessary.) A kludge meant to sort of accomplish what NTSC-M didn’t have much
trouble doing on its own.
ATSC-QAM = ATSC transmissions modulated using various sizes of quadrature
amplitude modulation constellations (64, 128 and 256-level are common) instead
of 8-level vestigial sideband modulation. This is done primarily to improve
bandwidth usage, thus enabling more program streams to occupy the same 6 MHz
channel width than over the air. ATSC-QAM is mostly used on cable TV systems
where it is frequently associated with in-the-clear channels and sometimes on
closed- circuit (non-broadcast) over-the-air television systems. What most cable
TV users mean when they generically say “QAM”.
ATSC-T = [ATSC-Terrestrial] Terrestrial ATSC-standard 8VSB digital television
broadcast transmissions in North America, Mexico and parts of Asia conducted in
6 MHz channels conforming to the standard NTSC-M bandplan. What most people in
North America mean when they say “DTV” or “OTA”.
B or Grade B (dBu) = television broadcast field strength contour of 47, 56, and
64 (dBu) for channels 2-6, 7-13 and 14-69 respectively.
BUD = a Big Ugly Dish; West Virginia’s state flower.
C = (1) the speed of light in a vacuum (2) Capacitance (the ability to store
charge) (3) microwave radio frequency band between 4 and 8 GHz; commonly used on
communication satellites for delivery of television programming by networks to
TV stations and cable headends (hope you still have your old BUD!); also
occasionally used by wireless computer networking equipment and better-quality
cordless home telephones (4) Series of weak, verbose, and flabby programming
languages used by card wankers to do boring mindless things under UNIX on
dinosaur mainframes. Introduced by Dennis Ritchie in the 1970s as a reminder to
be thankful for things like assembly languages. C deliberately takes many (if
not most) of the more irritating aspects of COBOL and (dare I say it?) INTERCAL
and compresses them into one easy-to-use, hard-to-forget suite. Due to its
inclusion in the original UNIX kernel as, in Ritchie’s words, “a sick joke”, C
and its variants are now used in just about everything with and without a
central processing unit today. (Will the insanity ever end?) Hackers believe
that C programmers are suits or code millers, and no self-respecting hacker
would ever admit to having learned the language. Its very name is seldom uttered
without ritual expressions of disgust or horror. Only Brainfuck is slightly less
CAM = Conditional Access Module; part of a satelite (or cable) receiver’s
decryption system. In the past (think analogue C-band Videocipher era) this was
a big cage about the size of a large trade paperback that slid into a bay in the
back of the receiver. These days a CAM is a large PCMCIA cartridge that plugs
into a small slot (which there may be 2 or 3 of, depending on the manufacturer’s
decision) on the front panel, or it may even be integrated with the motherboard.
A CAM is a two-part system consisting of the decryption hardware itself plus a
credit-card sized smart card, inserted into the module, containing the access
keys and other data needed to decode the signal. CAMs are needed to gain (well,
“legal”…) access to certain satellite feeds such as cable channels and
CAM-D = /kam-dee/ Compatible Amplitude Modulation Digital; proposed system
developed by Leonard Kahn as a reaction to Ibiquity’s DAB system (NRSC-5). It
effectively is an “hybrid” system that sends the high-frequency audio along a
narrowband digital side-channel of a conventional analog AM signal. It was
developed from Kahn’s earlier independent-sideband stereo transmission system.
CAM-D was advertised as causing less interference to adjacent channels than
NRSC-5 and its ability to be added directly to an existing transmitter site
without having to upgrade (expensive) existing equipment. Only a half-dozen
stations in the USA broadcast using CAM-D on an experimental basis in the
mid-late 2000s and no receiver products were ever introduced to the market. It
was quietly discontinued after Kahn’s death in 2012. (Compare “HD Radio”)
cart = shorthand for “cartridge”. (1) A tape cartridge; usually any of various
2- or 3-track, 1/4 or 1/2-inch endless loop tape systems used in broadcast
automation and similar applications; commonly one of several variants of George
Eash’s Fidelipac format. Earl Muntz’s consumer-oriented 4-track system of the
1960s (which the more familiar Lear 8-track tape evolved from) is a standard
size “A” Fidelipac broadcast cart with a different track configuration and lower
tape speed (2) A phonograph cartridge; a small container holding the electrical
audio transducer elements (usually either coils of fine wire and a small magnet
or piezoelectric crystals) mechanically coupled to a diamond, sapphire or steel
pickup needle which tracks the analog audio signal embossed into the record’s
groove. The component mounted on the end of the tone arm. Electronically a
magnetic/coil cartridge is just a specialized type of dynamic microphone.
CATV = (1) (generically) cable television. (2) (specifically) informal name for
a variant of the standard NTSC-M bandplan used on cable television systems in
North America. So-named to differentiate it from the similar, but less common
HRC (harmonically-related carrier) and IRC (incrementally-related carrier)
frequency plans. Portions of the CATV plan can be received using regular
non-cable ready equipment, if the headend carries programming on those channels
(particularly 2-13 and 65-139 (UHF broadcast 14-83). The current standard plan
ranges from 7 MHz to 1 GHz near-continuously.
North_American_television_frequencies#Cable_television (3) community antenna
television; early type of cable TV first deployed in Astoria, OR. CATV, in its
most primitive form, literally involves a number of receivers over a wide area
(such as a city or an apartment building) connected directly to a central
antenna, with possibly an amplifier or distribution hub, receiving terrestrial
Class = (1) Deceptive marketing buzzword often thrown around by widescreen TV
and monitor companies. Euphemism for “not the actual size of the panel you’re
buying”. E.g. a unit marketed as “58-inch class” probably does measure 58 inches
in total if you count the 55 1/2 diagonal inches of actual visible display panel
plus the 2 1/2 inches of plastic bezel that surround it. (2) In radio and
television broadcasting, how much power and coverage a licensee may implement is
determined by Zone and Class. Zones (see below) are geographic. Zones determine
what classes will be licensed within that zone.
Classes for FM are:
Classes for AM are:
Classes for TV are:
clear channel = a frequency on the AM band which provides the radio station with
the highest protection from interference from other stations. A long story. It
no longer means that only one transmitter operates on that channel
Clear Channel = (note capitalisation) The company that ruined radio. See also “I
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 47: Telecommunications = the
codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal
Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is
divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation.
Within title 47 the most discussed parts are normally Part 73 Radio Broadcast
Services, but also may refer to Part 0, Part 1, Part 2, Part 15, Part 17, Part
74, Part 95, Part 97.
contour = a series of points at which the signal of a radio or television
broadcast is at a referenced field strength. On flat land a non directional
(omnidirectional) antenna will exhibit near circular contours, ideally. Contours
are either “protected” contours or “interference contours.” In FM, the actual
numerical values of these contours depends on Zone and Class. Also, when you are
within 320 km of either Canada or Mexico, different spacing distances and
contour values must be observed. Stations in Zone II that are not within 320 km
of the Canadian border have their 60 dBu protected contour and three interfering
contours, 40 dBu for co-channel, 54 dBu for 1st adjacent and 100 dBu for 2nd
CP = (1) construction permit (2) circular polarization
CPS = Cycles Per Second; see “Hertz”
CQAM (also “C-QuAM”) = Compatible Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, a system
developed by Motorola for stereophonic broadcasting on mediumwave (AM)
Critical hours = the first two hours after local sunrise and the last two before
local sunset. It only applies to clear channels to protect the primary or
primaries on those channels. The amount of power etc. authorized is listed on
DA = (1) directional antenna,an antenna which radiates greater power in one or
more directions or exhibits greater receive sensitivity in one or more
directions (2) distribution amplifier, an amplifier that provides multiple
outputs from one input
DA-N = directional antenna at night
DA-2 = directional antenna 24 hours, different patterns day and night
DAB = digital audio broadcasting, the method for audio broadcasting digitally in
many countries, principally in Europe.
dB = decibel, a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio between two values of
a physical quantity, often used to express the gain of an amplifier or the loss
of signal strength as a signal propagates away from the antenna.
DBS = Direct Broadcast Satellite (or Service); basically, pay-cable TV over
satellite and may carry video+audio programming (television), audio-only
programming (radio simulcasts; specialty programming) or both. What the scammy
MMDS “wireless cable” thing of the late 80s/early 90s probably could have been
had it been managed more responsibly. Currently in the US, DBS cable
consists/consisted of the major companies Direct TV (AT$T) and DiSH Network
(Echostar), leased-bandwidth subsets of the two majors (e.g. Muzak via Echostar)
and a handful of niche companies (e.g. Globecast World, Sky Angel, DMX Music.).
DBS services may go out scrambled, in the clear or a mix of the two. Former
major pay DBS cable systems in the US included Alphastar, Primestar and USSB.
DC = (1) direct current, the unidirectional flow of electricity (2) Digicipher,
digital TV system originally developed in the early 1990s by General Instruments
(3) publisher of Batman, Superman and Justice League comic books (4) popular
brand of skateboard hightops (next to Vans, Etnies and Converse)
Dead air = Unmodulated carrier; condition occurring when a transmitter is on the
air but there is an absence of modulation (no information being broadcast).
Digicipher = Two proprietary early digital TV/audio broadcasting systems
developed and originally marketed by General Instruments (which was bought out
by Motorola and now owned by Arris Group) and which about 90% was worked into
the ATSC standards. Digicipher II is the system encountered today and used
mostly over satellites though a variant also exists for cable systems. Contrary
to popular belief Digicipher is *not* an encryption system (though it does
include optional encryption built-in) but a full MPEG2- or 4-based digital TV
system, thus DC services can go out scrambled or in the clear. DCII predated DVB
by a few years and coexists with it on North American satellites though the two
are completely incompatible. DCII’s encryption system had been considered
uncompromised, until a controversial seminar given at the Chaos Computer
Conference in 2016 shot that all to hell
The concept of “virtual channels” that all terrestrial TV users know and love
today originated in Digicipher.
DOCSIS = /DOK-siss/; /DOK-sees/ Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification,
international standards that specify how packet (TCP-IP) data are to be sent
over coaxial, hybrid fiber-coaxial and straight fiber cable TV networks. Systems
based on DOCSIS are frequently used by cable TV headends to provide two-way
Internet connectivity, pay-TV addressing and other telecommunications services
like voice telephony.
DRM = (1) Digital Radio Mondiale (fr./it. Worldwide Digital Radio), European
MPEG4-based digital audio broadcasting system used on shortwave and (sometimes)
the mediumwave and FM bands that’s sweeping the globe. DRM is an open system
like DAB, but not related to and incompatible with DAB. (2) digital restriction
management, any of various proprietary and sometimes illegal methods of blocking
access to payware (downloaded or on disk) by those who paid, sometimes dearly,
to access it. DRM methods vary from simply requiring the user type an “unlock”
code on installation, to filesystem tricks, to more unethical and illicit means
such as rootkits, and any number of variations and repetitions thereof. DRM has
been the source of considerable headaches, confusion and user-inflicted physical
damage to computer hardware for millions of computer operators the world over
for many years, although most (if not all) systems in use (to date, as of this
reading) have been defeated. Somebody who knows what they’re doing can defeat
most popular software-based DRM systems in maybe an hour.
DSS = Early digital television multiplexing system today used exclusively by
Directv. Acronym for “Digital Satellite System”. DSS and DVB-S are similar
except for the way they handle EPG, PIDs and other information, thus making them
completely incompatible. “Classic” MPEG2 DSS is rapidly becoming obsolete as
Directv converts to the more spectrally-efficient (and HD-capable) MPEG4 system.
DSSC = double sideband suppressed carrier, a form of modulation used in analog
FM (and sometimes AM (e.g. WWV/H)) broadcasting
DTV = (1) Direct TV, American pay DBS service. (2) digital television; generic
blanket term for any of various packet video broadcasting standards. “DTV” is
NOT the name of any digital television broadcasting standard!!!
DVB = Suite of largely open standards for MPEG2 and MPEG4 digital television
transmissions via wire (DVB-C), air (DVB-T) and satellite (DVB-S) used around
the world. DVB can support video, audio and two-way data communications. Way too
complicated to go into technical details of here. Had big money not yet again
had its way with the FCC, we could be enjoying DVB-T as our digital TV system
instead of proprietary, crappy ATSC. DVB-S is the system Americans are most
directly familiar with (especially if they use DiSH Network) since as of 2018 it
makes up the bulk of satellite signals over North America that aren’t Digicipher
EMI = (1) electromagnetic interference. (2) defunct major record label and media
conglomerate based in England. Capitol Records was EMI’s North American
EOM = end-of-mark; in tape automation systems, a subaudible tone used to signal
the automation controller to stop the current tape and cue the next reel or cart
in the playout chain. The typical EOM (e.g. as widely used in easy-listening
FMs) was 1 second of 25 Hz (sometimes, though rarely, 35 Hz) tone at -0 VU/-18
dBFS in the audio track (or the left channel, in the case of stereo recordings),
at the end of the selection, followed by 1 second of silence to allow the next
deck time to get up to speed. This usually created a silence gap between
selections; while suitable for easy listening and and light music formats, it
would make for a sloppy presentation on faster-paced pop music formats.
Drake-Chenault got around this by putting the tone one second *before* the end
of the song to form a tight segue more suitable for a pop format. Tone
automation was effectively made obsolete in industry by the early 1980s when
more sophisticated computerised playout controllers became available.
ERP = Effective Radiated Power, in FM radio and television broadcasting, the
amount of power you are licensed to transmit, it is equal to transmitter power
output (TPO) minus transmission line loss times the antenna gain.
FM = (1) frequency modulation, the encoding of information in a carrier wave by
varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. (Compare with amplitude
modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the
frequency remains constant.) (2) the FM broadcast band (87.5 to 108.1 MHz
throughout most of the world, in either 100 or 200 kHz increments.)
frankberry = (vulgar) (1) a. Any middle-aged, grouchy white man who can’t find
humor in anything and instead rants and raves about everything he finds not to
his liking. b. Any person who is not liked by anyone because of their negative
attitude toward everyone. “I just had my thread closed and was banned for a week
by that frankberry of a moderator.” “My post has been deleted but with no
justification, someone is pulling a frankberry.” (2) The most miserable or
undesirable place in a particular area. (3) The human anus.
free to air = A broadcast transmitted without encryption/scrambling and
(usually) not requiring a subscription be paid to use it; for example,
public-access channels on cable TV or DVB satellites. Compare “in the clear”.
frequency = the number of occurrences of an electromagnetic field, usually
referring to audio or radio signals, per unit time. Also see period and
Gm = transconductance, the ratio of the current change at the output port to the
voltage change at the input port, usually in reference to a vacuum tube.
HAAT = Height above average terrain, used in the prediction of coverage by
television stations, FM radio stations and some wireless radio services, HAAT
value is determined by taking 50 evenly spaced elevation points (above mean sea
level [AMSL]) along at least 8 evenly spaced radials from the transmitter site
(starting at 0 degrees [True North]). The 50 evenly spaced points are sampled in
the segment between 3 to 16 km (formerly 2 to 10 miles) along each radial. The
elevation points along each radial are averaged, then the radial averages are
averaged to provide the final HAAT value. Terrain variations within 3 km (2
miles) of the transmitter site usually do not have a great impact on station
HAGL = height above ground level
HD Radio = Suite of proprietary standards for digital audio broadcasting used
primarily in North America including Canada and in small portions of Asia and
Europe. The HD Radio system was developed by Ibiquity Digital, a cartel of
Lucent Technologies (AT$T) and a couple others, but as of 2015 is owned and
administered by Digital Theatre Systems (DTS) (movie sound-on-CD; those guys).
The currently accepted method is an hybrid mode transmitting redundant data
streams in sidebands of an analogue FM (rarely AM) station’s composite audio
signal though a full-digital mode does exist. Codec used is HE-AAC. HD Radio
marketing boasts “near CD-quality” audio (whatever the hell that means) but due
to the low bitrate and sample rates tends to fall short of that goal. It can
yield very good results under the right conditions. Its real strength is its
multicasting capability, providing a service similar to SCA but with relatively
higher fidelity. The term “HD” is simply a brand name and not an acronym for
anything although it is often (unofficially) defined as “Hybrid Digital”. (See
HDTV = high-definition television; generic term for various specific optional
high-resolution (today, often widescreen) image formats given in most current
digital TV broadcasting systems (ATSC, DVB, ISDB…) and several obsolete analog
systems (CCIR systems A [for its time], E & F; MUSE/Hi-Vision; HDMAC). Mostly
due to expense and high bandwidth requirements, high-definition services
presently comprise a small minority of terrestrial digital TV broadcasts
operating in the US. Do not confuse “HDTV” with the acronym of any digital
television broadcast standard (e.g. ATSC) or digital TV in general as they are
not synonymous. It is not possible for anyone, including the most seasoned of
professionals, to use the term in such a manner without making oneself look like
a complete and total idiot!!!
Hz = Hertz, the standard for measuring sinusoidal electricity. Also known as CPS
or cycles per second
I = electrical current, the flow of charge (measured in amperes or amps) (2)
singular first-person pronoun used by most people to refer to themselves
IBAC = in-band adjacent channel; what people really mean when they say “IBOC”.
IBOC = in band on channel, the current method for broadcasting audio digitally
on the AM and FM bands in North America
IF = intermediate frequency, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediate_frequency
IFB = interruptible foldback (or feedback); one-way feed of a TV station’s audio
used by the TV station’s producer, director or engineer to communicate
instructions (such as cues and camera directions) to remote news gathering
personnel in the field. Local IFBs are usually, though not exclusively, found in
the 450 and 455 MHz bands, frequently during news broadcasts, and can be
monitored on most basic narrowband FM (5-12 kHz) police scanners.
I Heart Radio = Lipstick on a proverbial pig. A polished turd. “I Fart Radio”.
IMD = intermodulation distortion
In the clear = generally, transmitted without any encryption or scrambling; can
be received on ordinary unmodified equipment. The main difference between
“free-to-air” and “in-the-clear” is whether or not a subscription or permission
is required to use the signal in certain applications. For example, Muzak and
DMX broadcast music via satellite in-the-clear that can be (and often is)
listened to by people in their private homes with off-the-shelf DVB equipment.
It isn’t free-to-air because it still requires a subscription be paid to use it
in businesses (such as stores and restaurants). Thus free-to-air transmissions
are often (usually) in the clear, but transmissions in the clear may not
necessarily be free to air.
ISDB = Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Japanese standards for data
broadcasting; used mostly for digital audio and video broadcasting in Japan and
South America. ISDB’s high-definition video mode replaced the analogue MUSE
standard for high-resolution video transmissions in Japan.
K = (1) Kilo; SI prefix for thousand (2) Series of three microwave radio
frequency bands between 12 and 40 GHz; the Ku-band (12-18 GHz) in particular is
commonly used for foreign satellite television broadcasting, backhauls, business
music services, commercial direct-broadcast satellite TV services (including pay
packages like Echostar and Direct TV, and in-the-clear ethnic and religious
TV/audio broadcasting.) The K-bands don’t require as large an antenna as C-band
to reliably receive, making them practical for fixed-dish, direct-to-home
television broadcasting and computer networking uses.
Kirchoff’s Law = Two equalities that deal with the current and potential
difference in the lumped element model of physical electrical circuits. First
described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. This generalized the
work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of James Clerk Maxwell. As taught, the
first law states that the sum of currents at a node sum to zero (current in must
equal current out). The second law states that the sum of all voltage drops
around a closed loop with the circuit must sum to zero. In combination with
Ohm’s Law, these three laws of physics enable almost all circuit parameters to
be calculated as either a hard number or an expression in terms of the currents,
voltages and stated variables given.
L inductance = the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in
electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the
Longley-Rice = An alternate method to the FCC method of predicting coverage that
addresses the difficulty of determining exactly where a contour line falls when
in fact the signal from a given transmitter may rise and fall above and below a
given signal level numerous times along the path.
Loumaag = See frankberry.
LPFM = Low Power FM, a class of service in FM broadcasting
LPTV = Low Power TV, a class of service in TV broadcasting
MAC = (Multiplex Analog Components) Series of various hybrid analog/digital
color television systems used mostly for broadcasting in Europe and Asia. MAC
systems transmit video as an analog baseband with sequential color information
(similarly to SECAM) with digital audio tracks. Audio format is a minor (and
compatible) variation of the British NICAM standard. A 525/60 version of D2-MAC
was used in the initial versions of the Primestar DBS system in North America
(later switched to DSS). A variation called “S-MAC” was used in NTSC areas to
move video around inside TV studios due to its resistance to generational
quality degradation. Outside North America it was used as a broadcasting format
over cable and satellite links and a high-resolution format (HD-MAC) also
exists. Because of various major technical issues MAC never really caught on as
a terrestrial broadcasting standard (though several European and Asian countries
did propose it) but it was, and still may be in a few areas, used on analog
cable TV systems. Most if not all MAC broadcasts over satellites have been
replaced by DVB.
macOS [sic] = A 64-bit graphic shell for a 32-bit patch to a 16-bit kernel
written for an 8-bit processor on a 4-bit bus, sold by a two-bit company that
can’t tolerate one bit of competition. Something that reminds you to be thankful
for things like Linux. No, that weird capitalization is not my error.
MP2 = MPEG 1 audio layer II, industry-standard lossy audio codec originating at
Fraunhofer Gesselschaft/Thomson IIS used mostly in (but not limited to)
professional applications. Probably the most widely-deployed codec in
broadcasting today. Based on (and often confused with) the earlier, obsolete
MUSICAM codec. MP2 was what the later MP3 system was based on and there are
several differences (most notably MP2’s simple 32-subband timebase encoding
method versus MP3’s bizarrely complex 576-component hybrid frequency/double
time-transform method) though they are similar enough that most MP3 decoders can
handle MP2 data. MP2 is the predominant audio codec in DVD-Video titles and DVB
satellite broadcasts when AC3 isn’t being used, is the mandated codec used in
EU147 DAB, audio distribution to radio and TV networks, and one of many audio
file formats supported by most consumer audio players that are worth spending
money on. Encoders like twolame can be used to generate local MP2 files or audio
streams. The development of MP2 earned CCETT, IRT and Philips an Emmy award for
engineering in 2000. A form of the related MPEG 2 audio layer II encoding is
used as an extension of MP3, mainly when the source PCM file is of lower
sampling rate than 32 kHz (since MP3 only supports 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz sampling
rates natively). Standardized in ISO/IEC 11172-3 and 13818-3.
NABTS = North American Broadcast Teletext Specification; fork of EIA-608
captioning technology (but standardized as EIA-512) that defines the teletext
mode presently used in the US and Canada. A subset of the World Standard
Teletext (WST) specification originally adopted in the UK by the BBC and ITV
then the rest of the 625/50 world, with modifications to make it 525/60
compatible. Responsible for that black box that takes up the lower half of your
TV screen but mostly doesn’t do anything. Some off-air video tapes recorded from
ABC and PBS in the late 80s/early 90s will show (now historic) TV scheduling and
other information in this format if you set the closed caption decoder to text
service #1 or 2 while the tape is playing. NABTS was used until fairly recently
(early 2010s) to enclose ancillary TV show data (URLs and crap) used by
Microsnort’s “Web TV for Windows” package (text #3 I.I.R.C.). It still sees
occasional use today as a way of sending internal messages to network affiliates
and for leased low-speed data services, some of which are known to leak out onto
local affiliates during network broadcasts. NABTS also specifies how NAPLPS
packets are to be encoded for one-way broadcast over television stations. NABTS
is directly related to closed-captioning for the hearing impaired, and
transmitted/decoded in a similar way using basically the same hardware.
NAPLPS = North American Presentation Level Protocol Standard, Telidon’s and
AT&T’s (mostly) method of implementing sort of “BBC-like” teletext used on NTSC
television systems. Based on the Canadian “Telidon” system. One of three
competing teletext systems implemented in North America alongside NABTS and a
slightly modified form of World Standard Teletext (WST) (used by the BBC and
just about everybody else). NAPLPS could do some really cool shit (for its time)
that the other systems couldn’t, like vector graphics and a primitive form of
“interactivity”. Unlike NABTS teletext, and like WST, NAPLPS’ big black window
that does nothing takes up almost the entire screen area. NAPLPS was never
widely used for broadcast services and was considered dead in that application
by the end of the 1980s because AT$T couldn’t get enough TV manufacturers to buy
into its very expensive and complex technology, though it did see considerable
use on dialup computer services (e.g. the original Prodigy network) into the mid
NDA = non directional antenna
NIR (pron. “near”) = Proposed Soviet color TV format developed in the 1950s but
never deployed. Named for the Nautchno-Issledovatelskiy Institut Radio; a
Russian telecommunications research institute. Basically an incompatible
variation of SECAM. The motivation of this development was mostly political, to
prevent satisfactory reception of outside color TV signals behind the Iron
Curtain. PAL was not in wide use yet and it was thought that SECAM would become
the dominant color system across Europe and Asia. (Similar to how the 62-75 MHz
“OIRT” FM broadcasting band was used across the eastern bloc in lieu of 87.5-108
MHz as used in the West.) By the early 1960s the NIR system was considered
unnecessary and expensive to implement and conventional SECAM was deployed
across the Soviet Union instead. (SECAM-III is still used today to transmit
television to remote areas of Russia (e.g. Siberia) and the Ukraine that would
be difficult or impractical to reach using DVB-T or -S.) As with SECAM and PAL,
NIR would have been used with a conventional 625/50 baseband video signal. Two
versions of NIR were proposed, with (“non-linear”) and without (“linear”)
dynamic gamma correction. The linear version was tentatively named “SECAM-IV”.
NTSC = analog television engineering standards and video transmission system.
Acronym for “Never Twice the Same Color”.
NFG = what happens to all vacuum tubes after a while
NFM = narrowband FM; frequency-modulated radio signals with bandwidth usually
less than 50 kHz (25 kHz deviation). NFM signals between 5 and 25 kHz are
commonly used for two-way voice and FSK data communications. Compare WFM.
Ohm’s law = The current through a conductor between two points is directly
proportional to the voltage across the two points. Usually stated as V = iR
(voltage equals current times resistance). One of two laws that form the basis
of all electrical calculations within a circuit. See Kirchoff’s Law.
OS/X = Deprecated. See macOS.
P = Electrical Power, measured in watts, the product of current and voltage at
the same point.
PA = (1) power amplifier (2) public address
PAL = (1) Phase Alternating Line, an analog color video subcarrier system
developed in Germany in the early 1960s, that became common in many countries
that use monochrome systems with a 50 Hz refresh rate (there is a 60 Hz 525-line
variation of PAL, called PAL-M, used primarily in Brazil). Both PAL and NTSC use
quadrature amplitude modulated subcarriers carrying the chrominance information
added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.
The name “Phase Alternating Line” describes the way that the phase of part of
the color information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which
automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by
cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. This is
why European TV sets, unlike NTSC sets, don’t have hue (tint) adjustment
controls – it simply isn’t needed. A phenomenon known as “Hanover bars” is
sometimes observed in the event of major phasing errors, such as poor reception
conditions, in the form of negative-color horizontal striping every other line.
(2) Perfection At Last; common reaction to the system’s technical merits after
having previously dealt with NTSC and SECAM. (3) Informally, any 576I 50Hz
analog video recording or transmission regardless of color encoding, as how
“NTSC” is used to informally describe any 480I 60Hz broadcast or recording.
Phasor = In AM directional antennae systems (multiple towers) the transmitter
output is connected to the phasor where there is a separate output for each
tower. The purpose of the phasor is to adjust phase and magnitude of the radio
frequency current being sent to each tower in the directional array. The
differences in these parameters are what creates the directional pattern. (take
a cookie baking sheet pan, fill with water, drop a stack of 4 pennies in one
place near the center of the tray and then 4 quarters in another place near the
center. Observe the interference patterns. This is a very basic way to explain
how directional patterns are created using multiple towers). This applies to AM
broadcasting only. FM directional antenna are done differently.
POL = polarization (also polarisation), in antenna theory the polarization is
the orientation of the electric field, and is always 90º from the magnetic
field. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves)#Radio_transmission
Q = (1) in electrical and electronic circuits, bandwidth relative to its center
frequency; the Q or quality factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes
how under damped an oscillator is. A high Q indicates a lower rate of energy
loss (2) the head of R&D in the British Secret Service in the James Bond series
(3) Captains Picard/Sisko/Janeway’s immortal nemesis
QAM = (1) Quadrature amplitude modulation, a form of single-sideband-like
modulation used for analogue (i.e. AM stereo) and digital (e.g. cable)
information (2) what most cable TV users call it when referring to in-the-clear
transmissions (even though the entire system might be QAM)
Quieting = A signal that is strong and clear, free of static, and easily
receivable by others. Generally “full quieting” provides enough carrier presence
to mute interfering signals and the IMD artifacts that they cause even in quiet
or low modulation level passages.
Reactance = the imaginary resistance part of impedance. It isn’t “imaginary” at
all. It represents the resistance equation as a function of frequency for
capacitance and inductance. In general, capacitance will have a negative
reactance and inductance will have a positive reactance so that Z = R + jX is
inductive and Z = R – jX is capacitive.
RF = radio frequency energy, electromagnetic signals that have a frequency
greater than 3,000 Hz (3 kHz). Up to about 20 kHz RF overlaps the audio
frequency range. (NB. Audio is mechanical energy, not electromagnetic.)
RF Spectrum Ranges include:
Very Low Frequency VLF 3 – 30 kHz
Low Frequency LF 30 – 300 kHz
Medium Frequency MF 300kHz – 3 MHz
High Frequency HF 3 – 30 MHz
Very High Frequency VHF 30 – 300 MHz
Ultra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz – 3 GHz
Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz – 30 GHz
Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz – 300 GHz
RFI = radio frequency interference
RFR = radio frequency radiation,
Safe Harbor = time period between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., local time. During this
time period, a station may air “indecent” and/or “profane” material. In
contrast, there is no safe harbor for the broadcast of “obscene” material.
Obscene material is entitled to no First Amendment protection, and may not be
broadcast at any time. For a full explanation of indecency, profanity and
obscenity (they are all different as pertaining to broadcasting) see
yet, as blatantly obscene and offensive as it is, there never seems to be any
shortage of right-wing Christian holy roller programming being barfed out over
the Amerikkkan airwaves today. Why is this? Ahem. -Ed’r.)
SAP = Secondary Audio Programming; analog multiplexed FM audio channel similar
of SCA but used with the NTSC television system. Specified in the BTSC
multichannel television sound standards. At a minimum, SAP is nearly identical
to SCA except for the frequency offset (+78.67 kHz vs. +67/+92 kHz as is the
case with SCA; fifth harmonic of the 15.734 kHz stereo pilot tone frequency) and
wider bandwidth, and are of comparatively higher fidelity. SAP subcarriers are
frequently used for foreign-language dubs of program audio but are also used to
send alternative audio programming (NOAA/EC weather, college radio simulcasts,
reading for the blind, etc). A “second” narrowband SAP channel, informally known
as the “pro” or “professional” channel at +102.271 kHz (6 1/2th harmonic), is
sometimes used to send interruptible foldback, telemetry and other information
used internally by the TV station and most tuners (except modified FM/TV radio
sets) can not tune the “pro” channel. Analog SAP’s function was replicated and
largely replaced by AC3 multicasting in ATSC broadcasting, where the old
terminology is still informally used. See also SCA.
S/N = Signal to noise ratio of either the RF, visual or audio signal with
reference to the associated noise floor.
SCA = Subsidiary Communications Authorisation; method of transmitting narrowband
(<= 8 kHz, usually) analogue FM audio programming alongside wideband FM radio
transmissions in the upper portion of an FM broadcast band channel at +67 and
+92 kHz offset the baseband (determined relative the +19 kHz stereo pilot tone).
SCA transmissions are/were frequently (though not always) used for
pay-subscription programming such as Muzak. They are still occasionally used for
free programming such as ethnic broadcasts and radio reading services. SCAs go
out at maximum 10% modulation relative the main wideband carrier and are prone
to multipath distortion, crosstalk, fading and similar effects. SCA audio almost
always goes out in the clear. This method is becoming increasingly obsolete as
newer methods capable of delivering higher-fidelity audio and tighter access
controls, such as ATSC or Ibiquity channels and Internet streaming, continue to
replace them. The late author and publisher of the DX guide “FM Atlas”, Bruce F.
Elving PhD., was a proponent of using SCA to transmit supplemental material to
the station’s main broadcast. SCA was officially deregulated by the FCC in the
80s, to Muzak Corporation’s chagrin, and became the method of choice for
libraries and blindness advocacy groups to send out recorded readings of books
and magazines. A similar technology, SAP, was used by NTSC television stations
to send alternative audio programming (Spanish dubs, NOAA/EC weather, college
radio simulcasts, etc).
SECAM = Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour And Memory), analog
color video subcarrier system developed in France. Usually used with 625/50
baseband video systems. SECAM transmits each color line sequentially and stores
each in delay lines until they can be writen to the screen raster. The other
systems use the phase difference between two subcarrier components relative the
baseband monochrome picture to obtain full color. Also “System Entirely Contrary
to the American Method” since chronologically it follows NTSC, predates PAL and
is mechanically a total departure of either. A 525/60 variant called “SECAM-M”
was used in Cambodia and parts of Viet Nam starting in the late 1960s. SECAM-M
had also been proposed in North America around the same time as a “professional”
intermediate format, intended to losslessly move color video around studios and
production facilities with NTSC workflows, but how widely its uptake was is
skin effect = The tendency for alternating current (AC) to flow mostly near the
outer surface of an electrical conductor, such as metal wire. The effect becomes
more and more apparent as the frequency increases.
SOL = the prevailing attitude of employees when they learn Clear Channel has
automated their station (see above)
SPARS code = Those three little “A”s and/or “D”s you sometimes see on audio CD
documentation. Specified in 1984 by the Society of Professional Audio Recording
Services to (some would argue, over-simplistically) describe the recording and
mastering workflow used to produce the final recording. The format is studio
take-mix and edit-master. Since CDs are a digital medium the final letter is
always “D”, though “A” is also (albeit rarely) used for analogue end media
(cassettes/reels/records) struck from an analog manufacturing master.
The most common combiations are:
AAD – Analogue studio take/analogue mix/digital manufacturing master
ADD – Analogue/digital/digital
DAD – Digital/analogue/digital
DDD – Digital/digital/digital
Oddly, some LP releases produced near the end of the format’s lifespan in the
late 1980s and early 1990s, which had simultaneous CD releases, were also coded
with a “D” suffix despite being an analogue format. Although confusing, this
combination is entirely plausible since a digital manufacturing master tape or
disk can, when decoded to analogue audio, be used to drive a cutting head.
SSB = single side band, a form of amplitude modulation
STA = Special Temporary Authority. When a broadcast station cannot operate in
accordance with its license due to equipment failure, damage to licensed
transmission systems, or other causes, the station may request an STA. Section
73.1635 of the rules governs STA operation; other related rule parts are 73.1680
(emergency antennas); 73.1560 (reduced power); 73.62 (AM directional antennas)
73.1740 (reduced hours).
Standing Wave Ratio = or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. In radio engineering and
telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching
of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide. In
lay terms, the SWR indicates the amount of reflected power as measured at a
specific point in the system. No reflected power is an SWR of 1.0 although in
most non laboratory situations that is impossible to achieve. An SWR of 1.2 is
considered very good. An SWR of 1.0x is considered excellent. The SWR is usually
thought of in terms of the maximum and minimum AC voltages along the
transmission line, thus called the voltage standing wave ratio or VSWR
(sometimes pronounced “vizwar”). For example, the VSWR value 1.2:1 denotes an AC
voltage due to standing waves along the transmission line reaching a peak value
1.2 times that of the minimum AC voltage along that line. The SWR can as well be
defined as the ratio of the maximum amplitude to minimum amplitude of the
transmission line’s currents, electric field strength, or the magnetic field
strength. Neglecting transmission line loss, these ratios are identical.
STL = studio-transmitter link, a system to deliver the program audio chain to
the transmitter site from the studio
SWR = see Standing Wave Ratio.
T = Period, the inverse of frequency or the time for the electric wave to go
through one full cycle.
TPO = transmitter power output
THD = total harmonic distortion
THX = how’d that get in here?
translator = a low power class of service in FM broadcasting intended to repeat
programming from an originating full power class station
V = voltage, the electrical potential (difference) between two points
Vestigial sideband = (or VSB) A form of amplitude modulation where one sideband
is transmitted along with a carrier. An odd variation of single-sideband meant
to be compatible with conventional AM sets; often used on shortwave. It has no
real power savings advantage over conventional double-sideband AM but it is a
significantly more efficient usage of bandwidth and can avoid interference to
adjacent transmissions. The Canadian speaking clock CHU is an example of VSB
modulation with audio on the upper sideband
(http://websdr.ewi.utwente.nl:8901/?tune=7850usb). VSB is also used in some
digital radio systems and for the video portion of analog television signals.
VSB = see Vestigial sideband
VSWR = Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. (see Standing Wave Ratio)
wavelength = in a sinusoidal wave, the distance over which the wave’s shape
WE = (1) Western Electric, defunct American producers of the most reliable
telephones ever made. Former division of AT&T and the manufacturing component of
the Bell System. (GTE’s unrelated equivalent was Automatic Electric (AE), which
resulted from General Telephone purchasing Strowger Automatic Electric Switch
Company in the 1890s.) Western Electric had several foreign subsidiaries,
particularly Northern Electric (Canada) (now Northern Telecom/NORTEL Networks)
and Nippon Electric Corporation (NEC) (remember the Turbo Graphics 16?). (2)
first-person collective pronoun that individual ham radio operators refer to
themselves as because personal individuality is not a recognised tenet of the
ham radio religion’s forced-assimilationism doctrine (contrast “I”)
Weather band = In North America, seven narrowband VHF FM channels between
162.400 and 162.550 MHz (25 kHz spacing) used for automated NOAA/National
Weather Service and Environment Canada radio broadcasts consisting primarily of
weather reports, forecasts and various other public safety information.
Virtually all police scanners, most VHF HAM radio transceivers, and many other
devices such as car stereos and boomboxes can receive these broadcasts.
Dedicated weather radio receivers also exist. Weather radio transmissions are
simulcast over conventional AM stations and television SAP (see SCA) broadcasts
in some areas. The band’s 162 MHz position was selected because of its proximity
to the marine VHF communications band. The length of a typical NOAA broadcast
cycle can run anywhere from about 10-15 minutes (e.g. a station in a
predominantly urban area) to well over an hour (e.g. a network of stations
simulcasting to cover a large coastal region). In the USA alternate languages
(e.g. Spanish) are provided in a few areas, sometimes on separate frequencies;
Canadian broadcasts typically alternate between English and French programming
cycles on the same frequency. A related (but different) service in Canada,
“continuous marine broadcast”, transmits recorded safety and navigational
announcements to mariners on several frequencies between 161.55 and 162.0 MHz.
WFM = wideband FM; frequency-modulated radio signals with bandwidth equal to or
greater than 50 kHz (25 kHz deviation). WFM signals of 100 or 200 kHz bandwidth,
depending on region, are found between 70 and 108 MHz where they are used for
composite one-way audio/data transmissions. Some types of relatively narrowband
FM signals between about 25 and 50 kHz bandwidth (such as those used sometimes
by ham radio operators and formerly by AMPS cellular telephone service) are
confusingly referred to as “wideband” because they are wider than others of
XTAL = Crystal
XMTR = Transmitter
XFORMER = Transformer
Z = impedance = the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a
current when a voltage is applied (DC resistance plus AC resistance)
Zones = In FM and TV broadcasting, for the purpose of allotments and
assignments, the United States is divided into three zones. A map of zones can
be found on
\lambda; = wavelength
\omega; = Resistance in Ohms
\pi; = pi, mathematical constant. The ratio of a circle’s circumference to its
diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.14159265358979323846; often shortened
to 3.14159 or fewer, depending how much precision is desired. Circumference can
be easily calculated using the formula \pi;R\sq; (pi-R-squared), or 3.14 *
radius * 2. Sometimes approximated as the fraction 22/7.
Ø = (1) the null set, (2) undefined (3) diameter (4) the sum and total of your
enemy’s knowledge . . . depending on which side of this board it appears.
Deliberately plagiarized and ripped off from Andy Brown’s post from a few years
ago with various additions made and liberties taken by me. (Live with it. Laugh
The opinions and views expressed in this post may not necessarily represent
those of nosignalallnoise or anybody else in particular. Or maybe they might.
Who knows. Who’s keeping track? Who cares?April 24, 2020 at 10:10 am #46010
Hey, you got it to work!
Next thing to do: upload a second “no-wrap” version of the file without CR/LFs so it doesn’t look so messy when reposted to bulletin boards. This will happen this weekend if not sometime next week.April 24, 2020 at 10:23 am #46011semoochieParticipant
Thank you Andy for listing me as a co-author of this piece although I must say that I have no recollection of doing so. That said, I would rather not be given credit for anything to do with frankberrying or is it “burying”? 🙂April 24, 2020 at 1:13 pm #46015Andy BrownParticipant
I copied nosignal’s post and tried on multiple occasions to post and it failed. This is really Dan’s repost of my failed attempt to post nosignal’s post which is an amalgam of several posts over several years.
Frankenberry?? Not something I put in the glossary.
Reformat and try to repost? No thanksApril 24, 2020 at 5:45 pm #46018
Semoochie– You’re welcome.
You did post some entries a couple versions back that I worked into the file.
As for frankberry, well, that’s neither here nor there. Actually it’s there but hopefully not here (touch wood).
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